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鏁欒偛瀛︾澹笓涓氬鐢熷涔犱綋楠岀殑褰卞搷鍥犵礌鐮旂┒

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纭曞崥璁烘枃缃?/a>鏄竴瀹朵笓涓氭彁渚涜鏂囧畾鍒朵慨鏀规湇鍔$殑缃戠珯锛屼笂10骞寸殑璁烘枃缁忛獙锛屾棤璁烘槸鏈璁烘枃銆佺澹鏂囪繕鏄湡鍒婅鏂囷紝鍗氬+璁烘枃锛屾垜浠兘鑳戒负鎮ㄦ彁渚涙柟渚裤€佸揩鎹枫€佸畨鍏ㄧ殑璁烘枃鏈嶅姟銆備互涓嬫槸纭曞崥璁烘枃缃戝皬缂栦负鎮ㄧ簿蹇冩寫閫夌殑涓€绡囨暀鑲?a href="http://flywand.com/index.php?upcache=1">璁烘枃鑼冩枃锛屽唴瀹规槸鍏充簬鏁欒偛瀛︾澹笓涓氬鐢熷涔犱綋楠岀殑褰卞搷鍥犵礌鐮旂┒銆傛繁鍏ュ垎鏋愭暀鑲插纭曞+鐢熷涔犱綋楠岀殑褰卞搷鍥犵礌, 鎺㈣鍏跺叿浣撳寤跺拰褰卞搷鏈哄埗, 鏈夊姪浜庢垜浠粠瀛︾敓瑙嗚“鑷笅鑰屼笂”鍦板垎鏋愰棶棰? 骞堕€氳繃瀹屽杽缁嗚妭鏉ユ彁楂樼爺绌剁敓鐨勫煿鍏昏川閲忋€備互渚涘悇浣嶅悓瀛﹀弬鑰冿紝甯屾湜瀵瑰ぇ瀹舵湁鎵€甯姪銆?/strong>
銆€鎽樿锛氬涔犱綋楠屾槸瀛︾敓瀵规眰瀛︽湡闂存墍鎺ヨЕ鐨勬暀鑲茶祫婧愩€佹牎鍥椿鍔ㄥ拰涓汉鎴愰暱绛夋柟闈㈡墍寰楃粡楠岀殑鎯呯华鎬х殑浣撲細鍜屽洖鍛炽€傞€氳繃瀵规墍閫夊彇鐨凬鏍?9浣嶆暀鑲插纭曞+鐢熺殑娣卞害璁胯皥, 鍙互绠$甯堣寖闄㈡牎鏁欒偛瀛︾澹敓瀛︿範浣撻獙鐨勫悇绉嶅奖鍝嶅洜绱? 姣斿涓撲笟璁ゅ悓鎰熴€佸甯堛€佸悓浼淬€侀櫌鏍$幆澧冦€佺ぞ浼氬ぇ鐜绛? 浣撶幇鍑轰釜浣撱€侀噸瑕佷粬浜恒€侀櫌鏍″拰绀句細鍥涗釜灞傛銆傛繁鍏ュ垎鏋愭暀鑲插纭曞+鐢熷涔犱綋楠岀殑褰卞搷鍥犵礌, 鎺㈣鍏跺叿浣撳寤跺拰褰卞搷鏈哄埗, 鏈夊姪浜庢垜浠粠瀛︾敓瑙嗚“鑷笅鑰屼笂”鍦板垎鏋愰棶棰? 骞堕€氳繃瀹屽杽缁嗚妭鏉ユ彁楂樼爺绌剁敓鐨勫煿鍏昏川閲忋€?/span>
鏁欒偛瀛︾澹笓涓氬鐢熷涔犱綋楠岀殑褰卞搷鍥犵礌鐮旂┒
 
銆€銆€鍏抽敭璇嶏細鐮旂┒鐢熷煿鍏? 鏁欒偛瀛︾澹敓; 瀛︿範浣撻獙;
 
銆€銆€Factors Affecting the Learning Experiences of Postgraduates of Education
 
銆€銆€WANG Shanmiao CHEN Hefang
 
銆€銆€Nanjing Normal University
 
銆€銆€Abstract锛歀earning experiences are what learners feel and reflect upon the educational resources, campus activities and personal growth in the learning process. Interviews with 19 postgraduates of education in N school reveal various factors affecting their learning experiences, such as their professional identity, mentor influences, peer influences, school and social environment. These factors are distributed on the four levels of individual, significant others, colleges and society. This factorial analysis helps us analyze problems “bottom-up” from the perspective of students so as to promote postgraduate education by improving the details.
 
銆€銆€鑷?999骞撮珮鏍″ぇ鎵╂嫑浠ユ潵, 鐮旂┒鐢熸暀鑲插緱鍒颁簡杩呯寷鍙戝睍銆傛棭鍦?016骞? 鎴戝浗鐨勭澹爺绌剁敓鍦ㄦ牎鐢熻妯″氨杈惧埌163涓囥€俒1]鏍规嵁銆婂浗瀹朵腑闀挎湡鏁欒偛鏀归潻鍜屽彂灞曡鍒掔翰瑕?(2010-2020) 銆嬫彁鍑虹殑鐩爣, 鍒?020骞? 鎴戝浗鐮旂┒鐢熷湪鏍$敓瑙勬ā灏嗚揪鍒?00涓囦汉銆俒2]銆婂浣嶄笌鐮旂┒鐢熸暀鑲插彂灞?ldquo;鍗佷笁浜?rdquo;瑙勫垝銆嬭繘涓€姝ユ寚鍑? 2020骞? 涓浗灏嗗缓鎴愪簹澶尯鍩熺爺绌剁敓鏁欒偛涓績, 灞婃椂鎴戝浗鐮旂┒鐢熸€讳綋瑙勬ā灏嗚揪鍒?90涓囦汉銆俒3]闅忕潃鐮旂┒鐢熻妯$殑鎸佺画鎵╁紶, 鎴戝浗鏃╁凡鎴愪负鍚嶅壇鍏跺疄鐨勭爺绌剁敓鏁欒偛澶у浗銆俒4]鐒惰€? 鍦ㄧ爺绌剁敓鏁欒偛瑙勬ā鎵╁紶鐨勫悓鏃? 鐮旂┒鐢熷煿鍏昏川閲忎竴鐩撮ケ鍙楃ぞ浼氫簤璁? 鏁欒偛婊℃剰搴︿笉灏藉浜烘剰銆傚湪杩欎簺涓嶆弧涓? 鏉ヨ嚜瀛︾敓鐨勪笉婊$壒鍒€煎緱鍏虫敞銆傚鐢熸棦鏄珮绛夋暀鑲茬殑閲嶈娑堣垂鑰呬箣涓€, 鍦ㄦ煇绉嶆剰涔変笂鏇村彲浠ヨ涓洪珮绛夋暀鑲茬殑“浜у搧”涔嬩竴, 浠栦滑鍦ㄩ珮绛夋暀鑲查樁娈电殑瀛︿範鍜屽彂灞? 搴斿綋鎴愪负楂樼瓑鏁欒偛璐ㄩ噺鍏虫敞鐨勬牳蹇冦€俒5]鑰屽湪瀛︾敓瀛︿範璐ㄩ噺鐨勪繚闅滄柟闈? 璧锋簮浜庡晢涓氶鍩熺殑娑堣垂鑰呬綋楠屼篃閫愭笎寮€濮嬪紩鍏ュ埌鏁欒偛棰嗗煙, 灏ゅ叾鏄悇绉嶇綉缁滄暀鑲插钩鍙? 鏇存槸鎶婅拷姹傛洿濂界殑瀛︿範浣撻獙褰撲綔鐩爣, 閫氳繃鏀瑰杽缃戠粶瀛︿範鑰呯殑瀛︿範浣撻獙, 鏉ユ彁楂樻墍鎻愪緵鐨勬暀鑲蹭骇鍝佺殑璐ㄩ噺銆傚湪“浠ヤ汉涓烘湰”鏁欒偛鐞嗗康娣卞叆浜哄績鐨勫綋涓? 鍏虫敞鐮旂┒鐢熺殑瀛︿範浣撻獙, 涔熷簲褰撴垚涓虹爺绌剁敓鏁欒偛涓嶅簲鍥為伩鐨勯棶棰樸€傛湰鐮旂┒灏嗕互甯堣寖闄㈡牎鏁欒偛瀛︾澹敓涓轰緥, 閫氳繃璁胯皥鏉ヤ簡瑙f暀鑲插纭曞+鐢熷涔犱綋楠岀殑褰卞搷鍥犵礌, 涓哄涔犱綋楠岀殑浼樺寲濂犲畾鍒嗘瀽鍩虹銆?/span>
 
銆€銆€涓€銆丯鏍℃暀鑲插纭曞+鐢熷涔犱綋楠岀殑璁胯皥璋冩煡
 
銆€銆€瀛︿範浣撻獙鏄?ldquo;瀛︾敓鍦ㄥ涔犺繃绋嬩腑涓庤绋嬨€佹暀瀛︽椿鍔ㄣ€佹暀瀛︿氦浜掋€佸涔犵幆澧冪瓑鎺ヨЕ鎵€浜х敓鐨勪綋楠?rdquo;[6]銆?ldquo;瀛︿範浣撻獙”涓?ldquo;灏辫缁忛獙”鏄潪甯哥浉杩戝張鏈変竴瀹氬尯鍒殑姒傚康銆傚氨璇荤粡楠屼晶閲嶄簬瀵规眰瀛︾粡鍘嗙殑灞曠ず, 瀛︿範浣撻獙鍒欎晶閲嶄簬瀵规眰瀛︽劅鍙楃殑灞曠幇銆傚凡鏈夊氨璇荤粡楠岀殑鐮旂┒涓昏鏄紑灞曞ぇ瑙勬ā鐨勯棶鍗疯皟鏌? 浠庢暟鎹垎鏋愮殑瑙掑害灞曠幇瀛︾敓鍦ㄦ眰瀛︿腑鐨勫弬涓庡害鍜屾弧鎰忓害, 濡傜編鍥藉嵃绗畨绾冲ぇ瀛︾殑“澶у瀛︿範缁忛獙璋冩煡” (college student experiences questionnaire, CSEQ) 鍜?ldquo;鍏ㄥ浗澶у鐢熷弬涓庡害璋冩煡” (national survey of student engagement, NSSE) , 鑻卞浗鐨?ldquo;鍏ㄥ浗澶у鐢熻皟鏌?rdquo; (national student survey, NSS) , 婢冲ぇ鍒╀簹鐨?ldquo;璇剧▼瀛︿範缁忛獙闂嵎” (course experience questionnaire, CEQ) , 浠ュ強鍥藉唴寮曚粙骞舵湰鍦熷寲鐨勫懆浣滃畤鏁欐巿鐨?ldquo;涓浗澶у鐢熷氨璇荤粡楠?rdquo;鐮旂┒銆佸彶闈欏鏁欐巿鐨?ldquo;涓浗澶у鐢熷涔犳姇鍏ヨ皟鏌?rdquo;銆侀椀缁存柟鏁欐巿鍜屾枃涓滆寘鏁欐巿璐熻矗鐨?ldquo;棣栭兘楂樻牎瀛︾敓鍙戝睍璋冩煡”绛夈€傛湰鏂囧皢瀛︿範浣撻獙鐣屽畾涓?ldquo;瀛︾敓瀵规眰瀛︽湡闂存墍鎺ヨЕ鐨勬暀鑲茶祫婧愩€佹牎鍥椿鍔ㄥ拰涓汉鎴愰暱绛夋柟闈㈡墍寰楃粡楠岀殑鎯呯华鎬х殑浣撲細鍜屽洖鍛?rdquo;, 鏇翠晶閲嶄富瑙備綋楠岃€岄潪瀹㈣缁忓巻銆?/span>
 
銆€銆€瀛︿範浣撻獙鍙互鐢ㄨ川鎬ф柟娉曟潵鐮旂┒銆傜澹敓浣滀负鍏锋湁鐙珛鎬濊€冭兘鍔涖€佸叿鏈変赴瀵屾儏鎰熺殑涓綋, 褰卞搷鍏跺涔犱綋楠岀殑鍥犵礌闈炲父澶嶆潅銆傝繖鏍风殑闂閫傚悎杩愮敤娣卞害璁胯皥娉? 閫氳繃鐮旂┒鑰呭拰琚鑰呬互闈㈠闈㈢殑褰㈠紡杩涜鍙eご浜ゆ祦, 瀵规湁鎰忚瘑鑾峰緱鐨勮祫鏂欒繘琛屾敹闆嗕笌鏁寸悊, 鐒跺悗鍐嶅紑灞曡繘涓€姝ョ殑鎺㈣銆俒7]鍑轰簬鍙搷浣滄€у拰鏂逛究鍙栨牱鐨勮€冭檻, 鏈爺绌朵互绗旇€呮墍灏辫 (宸ヤ綔) 鐨凬鏍℃暀鑲茬瀛﹀闄㈢殑鏁欒偛瀛︾澹敓涓虹爺绌跺璞°€侼鏍℃槸涓€鎵€鐪侀儴鍏卞缓鐨勪綅浜庝笢閮ㄥ湴鍖虹殑“211宸ョ▼”楂樻牎, 鍏朵笅灞炵殑鏁欒偛绉戝瀛﹂櫌鍥犲巻鍙叉偁涔呫€佷笓涓氶綈鍏ㄨ€屽叿鏈夎緝濂界殑浠h〃鎬с€傛湰鐮旂┒閲囩敤鐩殑鎬ф娊鏍风殑鏂规硶, 閫夊彇閭d簺鑳藉鏁炲紑蹇冩墘銆佺Н鏋佷富鍔ㄨ〃杈惧唴蹇冩劅鍙楄€呬负璁胯皥瀵硅薄;璁胯皥浜烘暟浠ョ爺绌惰祫鏂欑殑楗卞拰搴︽潵纭畾, 鏈€缁堥€夊嚭浜?9鍚嶇爺绌跺璞? 娑夊強鏁欒偛瀛﹀師鐞嗐€佸鍓嶆暀鑲插銆侀珮绛夋暀鑲插銆佸痉鑲插銆佽绋嬩笌鏁欏璁恒€佹暀鑲叉妧鏈銆佹暀鑲茬粡娴庝笌绠$悊銆佹垚浜烘暀鑲插8涓笓涓氥€傝璋堝璞℃寜鐓у彈璁块『搴忕紪鍙蜂负A1锝濧19銆?/span>
 
銆€銆€缁忚繃鍒濇璁捐璁胯皥鎻愮翰, 寮€灞曢璁胯皥杩涜瀹屽杽, 鏈爺绌舵渶缁堢殑璁胯皥鍐呭闆嗕腑浜庝互涓嬫柟闈?“鎮ㄦ€庢牱鐪嬪緟鑷繁鐨勪笓涓?鏈変粈涔堟劅鍙?” “鎮ㄨ鐮旀湡闂存渶澶х殑鎴愬氨鍜岄仐鎲惧悇鏄粈涔?” “鎮ㄨ鐮旀湡闂村彈鍒板摢浜涗汉鐨勯噸瑕佸奖鍝?鏈変粈涔堟劅鍙?” “鎮ㄥ瀵煎笀鏈変粈涔堟劅鍙?” “鎮ㄨ鐮旀湡闂存渶鐝嶈吹鐨勫弸璋婃槸浠€涔?” “鎮ㄥ瀛︽牎鐨勭‖浠惰鏂芥湁浠€涔堟劅鍙?” “鎮ㄥ瀛︽牎鐨勫椋庢皼鍥寸瓑鏈変粈涔堟劅鍙?” “鎮ㄥ瀛﹂櫌鐨勫鏈拰鏂囧寲娲诲姩鏈変粈涔堟劅鍙?” “鎮ㄥ瀛﹂櫌鐨勫鐢熺鐞嗗埗搴︽湁浠€涔堟劅鍙?” “鎮ㄨ寰楃ぞ浼氬ぇ鐜鏄惁浠ュ強鎬庢牱褰卞搷鎮ㄧ殑璇荤爺鎰熷彈?”杩欎簺寮€鏀惧紡闂, 鑳藉璁╄璁胯€呮繁鍏ヨ〃杈捐鐮旀湡闂寸殑瀛︿範缁忓巻涓庢儏鎰熶綋楠屻€傞€氳繃瀵硅璋堝唴瀹圭殑鎼滈泦鏁寸悊, 鍙互鍙戠幇鏁欒偛瀛︾澹敓瀛︿範浣撻獙鍙楀埌澶氱鍥犵礌鐨勫奖鍝嶃€?/span>
 
銆€銆€浜屻€佹暀鑲插纭曞+鐢熷涔犱綋楠岀殑褰卞搷鍥犵礌鍒嗘瀽
 
銆€銆€閫氳繃瀵硅璋堝唴瀹圭殑鍙嶅闃呰, 浠ュ強瀵瑰叧閿瘝鐨勬悳瀵汇€佺紪鐮佷笌褰掔被, 鏈枃鎻愬彇鍑烘暀鑲插纭曞+鐢熷涔犱綋楠岀殑浜斿ぇ鍥犵礌, 鍒嗗埆鏄澹敓鐨勪笓涓氳鍚屾劅銆佸甯堢殑褰卞搷銆佸悓浼寸殑褰卞搷銆侀櫌鏍$幆澧冪殑褰卞搷, 浠ュ強绀句細澶х幆澧冪殑褰卞搷銆?/span>
 
銆€銆€1.纭曞+鐢熺殑涓撲笟璁ゅ悓鎰熴€?/span>
 
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銆€銆€鍏舵, “璇剧▼澶辩伒”褰版樉浜嗗甯堢殑浣滅敤銆傜爺绌剁敓闃舵寮鸿皟绉戠爺鑳藉姏鍜岀鐮斿搧璐ㄧ殑鎻愬崌, 鑰岃繖绉嶈兘鍔涘拰鍝佽川骞朵笉鏄€氳繃绠€鍗曠殑璇剧▼灏辫兘瀛︿細鐨? 鍦ㄤ竴瀹氱▼搴︿笂浣撶幇鍑鸿绋嬪け鐏点€傝€屼笖, 纭曞+闃舵鐨勮绋嬪瓨鍦ㄧ潃鏁伴噺缂洪櫡銆佹椂闂寸己闄峰拰鍐呭缂洪櫡銆備笌鏈闃舵鐩告瘮, 鏁欒偛瀛︾澹敓鐨勫鍒嗚姹傝緝浣? 涓撲笟鎬ц绋嬬殑鏁伴噺杈冨皯, 瀛︾敓鍦ㄨ绋嬫柟闈篃鏈夎緝澶х殑閫夋嫨鏉冦€傝绋嬫暟閲忓皯鐨勭粨鏋? 灏辨槸瀛︾敓鐨勫璇嗕笉澶熶赴瀵? 杩橀渶瑕佸叾浠栭€斿緞杩涜琛ュ厖銆傚彟澶? 浠庢椂闂翠笂璁? 鏁欒偛瀛︾澹敓涓€鑸槸淇畬璇剧▼銆佹弧瓒冲鍒嗚姹備箣鍚庢墠鑳借繘琛屽紑棰樻姤鍛? 杩欐剰鍛崇潃纭畾瀛︿綅璁烘枃鐨勯€夐銆佸紑濮嬪浣嶈鏂囧伐浣? 閮戒笉鑳藉湪璇剧▼瀛︿範闃舵鑾峰緱鐩存帴鐨勬寚瀵? 蹇呴』浠庡甯堥偅閲屽姹傚府鍔┿€傝繖涔熸剰鍛崇潃, 璇剧▼瀛︿範鐨勫唴瀹瑰叿鏈夊熀纭€鎬? 涓昏瑙e喅鏂规硶鍜屽師鐞嗘€ч棶棰? 浠呬粎鏄鏈爺绌剁殑搴忔洸, 鑰屽浣嶈鏂囨洿鍍忔槸鍩轰簬璇剧▼鐭ヨ瘑鐨勫簲鐢ㄥ紑鍙戞€х爺绌? 杩橀渶瑕佹墡瀹炵殑鏂囩尞鐮旂┒銆佸疄璇佽皟鏌ャ€佽鏂囨挵鍐欍€佸弽澶嶄慨鏀? 杩欎簺閮介渶瑕佸甯堣繘琛屾寚瀵煎拰甯姪銆?/span>
 
銆€銆€鍐嶆, “涓€瀵逛竴绀鸿寖”褰版樉浜嗗甯堢殑浣滅敤銆傜爺绌剁敓闃舵鐨勫涔犵涓嶅紑涓撲笟鐨勬寚瀵? 瀛︾敓瑕侀€氳繃涓撲笟涔︾睄鐨勫ぇ閲忛槄璇诲拰琛屽姩鎺㈢储, 鍦ㄥ叿浣撳疄璺佃繃绋嬩腑涓嶆柇杩涜浣撻獙鍜屽弽鎬濄€傝繖绉嶄綋楠屽拰鍙嶆€濆寘鍚緢澶氱紕榛樼煡璇? 甯稿父浠ヤ竴绉嶄笉鍙█浼犵殑闅愯斀褰㈠紡瀛樺湪, 涔熺壒鍒渶瑕佹湁缁忛獙鐨勫墠浜烘潵瑷€浼犺韩鏁欍€傝繖涓?ldquo;鏈夌粡楠岀殑鍓嶄汉”灏辨槸瀵煎笀, 浠栫殑绮惧績鎸囧瀵逛簬瀛︾敓杩欑瀛︽湳鍒濆鑰呴潪甯搁噸瑕? 鍙湁缁忚繃涓€姝ユ鐨勫煿鍏? 鐮旂┒鐢熸墠鑳介€愭笎鎴愰暱涓鸿兘澶熺嫭绔嬫壙鎷呬竴瀹氬鏈换鍔$殑浜恒€備集椤?middot;鍏嬫媺鍏嬭杩?“涓嶆槸瑕侀€氳繃鏍囧噯鍖栫殑绋嬪簭瀵瑰鐢熻繘琛岃缁? 鑰屾槸瑕佽瀛︾敓閫氳繃渚濋檮浜庝竴浣嶅悕甯堝苟涓旂湅鐫€杩欎綅鍚嶅笀宸ヤ綔, 浠庤€屾潵瀛︿範浠栦滑鐨勫绉戞槸骞蹭粈涔堢殑銆?rdquo;[8]杩欏彞璇濊〃鏄庝簡瀵煎笀瀵瑰鐢熻█浼犺韩鏁欑殑閲嶈鎬с€傚甯堝湪鎸囧瀛︾敓鐨勮繃绋嬩腑, 骞朵笉鍙槸绋嬪簭鍖栧湴鐏岃緭鐭ヨ瘑, 杩樿閫氳繃鐢宠绉戠爺椤圭洰銆佸畬鎴愰」鐩棰樸€佹挵鍐欑鐮旇鏂囥€佸弬鍔犲鏈細璁瓑娲诲姩, 鏁欑粰瀛︾敓鍋氱鐮旂殑鏂规硶, 閿荤偧瀛︾敓鐮旂┒鐨勫搧璐? 鐢氳嚦浠ヨ韩绀鸿寖鍦版暀缁欏鐢熷仛浜哄仛浜嬪仛瀛﹂棶鐨勯亾鐞嗐€?/span>
 
銆€銆€鏈€鍚? “瀵煎笀璐熻矗鍒?rdquo;褰版樉浜嗗甯堢殑浣滅敤銆傜爺绌剁敓鍦ㄦ牎鏈熼棿娣卞彈鎸囧鏁欏笀鐨勫奖鍝? 鎸囧鏁欏笀闄や簡鎸囧鐮旂┒鐢熷涔犲強涓氬姟宸ヤ綔澶? 杩樺繀椤诲叧娉ㄦ墍鎸囧鐮旂┒鐢熺殑鎬濇兂鏁欒偛銆佷釜浜烘垚闀? 鎺屾彙鎵€鎸囧鐮旂┒鐢熺殑鎬濇兂鍔ㄦ€併€傚甯堝瀛︾敓鎵挎媴鐫€鏁欒偛鍜岀鐞嗙殑鍙岄噸璐d换銆傛瘮濡? 鐮旂┒鐢熼樁娈垫嫢鏈夋瘮鏈闃舵鏇村鐨勮嚜鐢? 灏ゅ叾鏄椂闂村垎閰嶇殑鑷敱銆傝繖涔熷喅瀹氫簡鐮旂┒鐢熺殑瀛︿範鍑犱箮鏄?ldquo;闅忔椂闅忓湴”鐨? 鐮旂┒鐢熺殑鍩瑰吇宸ヤ綔璐┛浜庤鍫傛暀瀛﹀拰鐮旂┒鐢熷弬涓庝竴鍒囨湁鎰忎箟娲诲姩鐨勮繃绋嬩箣涓€傚彲浠ヨ, “瀵煎笀鏄惁鍦ㄧ爺绌剁敓鍩瑰吇涓婄Н鏋佸紩瀵煎拰绠$悊寰堝ぇ绋嬪害涓婂喅瀹氱潃鐮旂┒鐢熷鐢熺敓娲荤殑鏂瑰紡鍜岃川閲?rdquo;[9]銆?/span>
 
銆€銆€鎬讳箣, 姝f槸鍥犱负瀛︿笟闅惧害鎻愰珮銆佽绋嬬殑鍔熻兘鏈夐檺銆佸甯?ldquo;涓€瀵逛竴绀鸿寖”鐨勫繀瑕佹€у寮恒€佸甯堣礋璐e埗鐨勫疄鏂? 瀵艰嚧鐮旂┒鐢熺殑瀛︿範浣撻獙娣卞彈瀵煎笀鐨勫奖鍝嶃€傚甯堝湪鐮旂┒鐢熷煿鍏昏繃绋嬩腑鐨勮〃鐜? 鐩存帴褰卞搷鐮旂┒鐢熷煿鍏昏川閲? 鍦ㄥ緢澶х▼搴︿笂鍐冲畾鐫€纭曞+鐢熷涔犱綋楠岀殑鐘跺喌銆?/span>
 
銆€銆€璁胯皥涓? 纭曞+鐢熶滑瀵硅嚜宸辩殑瀵煎笀鏅亶璇勪环杈冮珮, 璁や负瀵煎笀鏄笁骞存眰瀛︿腑瀵硅嚜宸卞奖鍝嶆渶澶х殑浜恒€侫1璇?“瀵煎笀鏄垜璇荤鏈熼棿鏈€鎰熸縺鐨勪汉銆傛垜浠笀闂ㄧ殑鍚屽閮藉緢浼樼, 鍩烘湰涓婇兘鍙戣〃浜嗚鏂? 鏈夌殑杩樿幏寰椾簡鍥藉濂栧閲戙€備絾鏄垜鑷繁涓嶆槸寰堜笂杩? 涔熸病鎬庝箞鍐欒鏂? 鎵€浠ヨ繕鎸鸿嚜鍗戠殑銆備絾瀵煎笀濂藉儚涔熸病璁¤緝杩欎簺, 浠栬繕鏄緢鍏钩鍦板寰呮瘡涓€涓鐢熴€傚寘鎷湪瀛︿笟涓? 浠栧鎴戠殑鎸囧涔熸槸寰堣缁嗙殑銆傝寰楁湁涓€娆? 鎴戝湪璁烘枃鍐欎綔杩囩▼涓亣鍒颁簡鍐欎綔鏂规硶鏂归潰鐨勯棶棰? 鐒跺悗鎵撶數璇濋棶瀵煎笀, 瀵煎笀璇存垜缁欎綘鎺ㄨ崘涓€绡囩被浼肩殑璁烘枃, 浣犲彲浠ュ弬鑰冧竴涓嬨€傛寕浜嗙數璇濅箣鍚? 浠栫珛鍒诲氨鎶婁粬鍒氭墠鎻愬埌鐨勯偅绡囪鏂囧彂缁欐垜浜嗐€傝€屼笖鍙戝畬涔嬪悗鍙堢粰鎴戞墦浜嗕釜鐢佃瘽, 鍛婅瘔鎴? 宸茬粡鍙戠粰鎴戜簡銆傝櫧鐒舵槸涓€浠跺緢灏忕殑浜? 浣嗘槸璁╂垜闈炲父鎰熷姩, 鍥犱负瀵煎笀鑷繁涔熷緢蹇欍€傚甯堝钩甯哥湅鍒板拰鎴戠殑璁烘枃涓婚鐩稿叧鐨勬枃绔? 閮戒細鍦ㄥ井淇′笂杞彂缁欐垜, 璁╂垜瑙夊緱浠栧緢鐢ㄥ績, 鎴戜篃鐨勭‘寰楀埌浜嗗緢濂界殑甯姪銆?rdquo;绫讳技鐨勮瘎浠疯繕鏈堿15, 濂硅:“鎴戝緢浣╂湇鑷繁鐨勫甯? 鎴戜滑瀵煎笀鏄偅绉嶅鍚嶅埄寰堟贰娉婄殑浜? 浣嗘槸瀵瑰鏈緢涓ヨ皑銆備粠濂硅韩涓婃劅瑙夊埌, 浣滀负涓€涓コ鎬? 鑳藉韪忓疄鍒伴偅绉嶇▼搴? 娣℃硦鍒伴偅绉嶇▼搴? 鐪熸槸寰堜笉瀹规槗!鎰熻鑷繁寰堟兂鎺ヨ繎濂? 鍚戝ス鐪嬮綈銆?rdquo;瀵逛簬鍦ㄥ鏈竟缂樹笉鏂懜绱㈢殑鏂颁汉鏉ヨ, 甯堝痉鍜屽璇嗗吋闀跨殑瀵煎笀, 鍫О瀛︾敓浜虹敓鑸鐨勭伅濉斻€?/span>
 
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銆€銆€3.鍚屼即鐨勫奖鍝嶃€?/span>
 
銆€銆€鍚屼即鍏崇郴鏄爺绌剁敓闃舵闄ゅ笀鐢熷叧绯讳箣澶栨渶閲嶈鐨勪汉闄呭叧绯汇€傛暀鑲插纭曞+鐢熷湪鏍℃椂闂寸殑闀挎湡鎬? 浠ュ強浜烘枃绀句細瀛︾鏃堕棿鏀厤鐨勭浉瀵硅嚜鐢辨€? 閮戒娇寰楀悓浼翠箣闂翠氦寰€闈炲父棰戠箒, 鍐呭闈炲父瀹芥硾銆備汉鏂囩ぞ浼氬绉戦潪甯稿己璋?ldquo;鍚屼即鐨勪氦娴?rdquo;, 鑹ソ鍜岀Н鏋佺殑鍚屼即鍏崇郴, 涓嶄粎鍙互鐩存帴淇冭繘瀛︽湳鐮旇, 澧炲姞瀛︽湳鎺㈢┒鐨勬暟閲忎笌璐ㄩ噺;鑰屼笖鍙互甯姪褰兼鏍戠珛姝g‘鐨勫彂灞曡蹇? 澧炲姞瀵瑰涔犵殑鎶曞叆搴? 婵€鍙戜粬浠弬涓庡鏈椿鍔ㄧ殑鐑儏, 瀹炶返绉瀬鐨勪汉鐢熻鍜屼环鍊艰銆傚弽涔? 涓嶈壇鍜屾秷鏋佺殑鍚屼即鍏崇郴, 鍒欎細璁╁鐢熷ソ閫告伓鍔炽€佷笉鎬濊繘鍙栥€佽秼鏄撻伩闅? 鏈€缁堝湪涓嶈壇鐜褰卞搷涓嬫氮璐瑰疂璐电殑涓夊勾, 鏃㈠奖鍝嶆湭鏉ョ殑鍙戝睍, 鍙堝甫鏉ユ秷鏋佺殑瀛︿範浣撻獙銆?/span>
 
銆€銆€鑸嶅弸鍏崇郴鏄爺绌剁敓鏈€涓昏鐨勫悓浼村叧绯讳箣涓€, 瀵圭澹敓鐨勫奖鍝嶆棦鏈夊鏈殑, 涔熸湁闈炲鏈殑;鏃㈡湁绉瀬鐨? 涔熸湁娑堟瀬鐨勩€傚浜庤繖绉嶆秷鏋佺殑浣撻獙, 璁胯皥涓瑼1璇?“鎴戝彈鑸嶅弸褰卞搷鎸哄ぇ鐨勩€傛湰鏉ユ垜鍠滄鏃╃潯鏃╄捣, 鐧藉ぉ瀛︾偣鑷繁鐨勪笢瑗裤€備絾鏄垗鍙嬮兘鐫″緱寰堟櫄, 鑰屼笖鏁翠釜瀹胯垗閮芥槸鍋忓悜浜庢瘯涓氬氨鐩存帴灏变笟鐨? 骞虫椂闄や簡涓婅, 澶у閮戒笉鎬庝箞瀛︿範銆傛椂闂翠箙浜? 鎴戜篃涓嶅啀娉″浘涔﹂浜嗐€備絾鍏跺疄鎴戝績閲屽浜庡鏈繕鏄湁涓€涓濅笣鎬€蹇电殑, 鎵€浠ュ氨鏈夌偣鐭涚浘銆佹湁鐐归毦鍙椼€備笁骞翠笅鏉ヨ寰楀寰椾笉灏藉叴, 鐜╁緱涔熶笉灏藉叴銆傛湰绉戞椂鎴戜篃鏄尯濂藉鐨? 褰撳勾鏈鍜屾垜涓€璧疯€冪爺鎴愬姛鐨勫悓瀛? 閮藉彂琛ㄥソ鍑犵瘒璁烘枃浜? 鎴戣嚜宸卞嵈涓€绡囦篃娌℃湁銆傛瘡澶╁彧鏄窡鐫€鍚屽浠幓涓婅, 鍏朵粬鏃堕棿灏卞湪瀵濆閲? 鎽告懜鎵嬫満, 鐜╃帺鐢佃剳, 鍛ㄦ湯鐨勬椂鍊欏伓灏斿嚭鍘诲仛涓€鐐瑰鏁? 鍐嶈窡鑸嶅弸鐜╀竴鐜┿€傜幇鍦ㄦ兂涓€鎯? 濡傛灉鎴戝湪涓€涓Н鏋佷笂杩涚殑瀹胯垗, 涔熻涔熻兘淇濇寔鏈閭g鐘舵€併€備笉杩囩幇鍦ㄨ繖鏍? 涓昏杩樻槸鎬嚜宸卞お瀹规槗鍙椾粬浜哄奖鍝嶃€?rdquo;鍙互鐪嬪嚭, 闄や簡涓汉鑷埗鍔涗笌瀛︽湳鎰忓織鐨勮杽寮? A1鍦ㄥ涔犳€佸害鏂归潰鐨勭‘鍙楀埌浜嗗悓浼撮潪甯稿ぇ鐨勮礋闈㈠奖鍝嶃€傚綋鐒? 鍚屼即鐨勫奖鍝嶅苟涓嶅眬闄愪簬瀛︿笟鑼冨洿, 琚鑰呬滑鏅亶璁や负, 鑸嶅弸鍙婂悓瀛︿箣闂存洿鍠滄鑱婄敓娲绘柟闈㈢殑闂銆傛瘮濡侫6璇撮亾:“鎴戣鐮斾互鍓嶆槸涓€涓儐灏忋€佸唴鍚戠殑濂冲, 浣嗗湪鐮旂┒鐢熻垗鍙嬬殑甯﹀姩涓? 鎴戝幓灏濊瘯浜嗕竴浜涗互鍓嶆病鏈夌帺杩囩殑涓滆タ, 瑙佸埌浜嗗緢澶氫笘闈? 闈炲父鎰熻阿濂逛滑鐨勯紦鍔卞拰闄即銆?rdquo;
 
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銆€銆€涓夈€佺爺绌剁粨璁?/span>
 
 
銆€銆€浠ヤ笂鍒嗘瀽浜嗙澹敓瀛︿範浣撻獙鐨勫奖鍝嶅洜绱? 寮鸿皟浜嗙澹敓鐨勪笓涓氳鍚屾劅銆佸甯堛€佸悓浼淬€侀櫌鏍$幆澧? 浠ュ強绀句細澶х幆澧冨洜绱犵殑褰卞搷銆傝繖浜斾釜鏂归潰鐨勫洜绱犲苟涓嶆槸骞冲潎鐢ㄥ姏銆佺洿鎺ュ彂鎸ヤ綔鐢ㄧ殑, 鑰屾槸鏈夊眰娆′箣鍒嗐€傛渶褰卞搷瀛︿範浣撻獙鐨勫綋灞炵澹敓鐨勪釜浣撳洜绱? 灏ゅ叾鏄笓涓氳鍚岀殑绋嬪害銆?ldquo;閲嶈浠栦汉” (significant others) 鐨勫奖鍝嶄篃闈炲父鏄捐憲, 灏ゅ叾鏄甯堝拰鍚屼即鐨勫奖鍝嶃€傚闄㈠拰瀛︽牎鐨勫奖鍝嶄篃姣旇緝澶? 杩欎簩鑰呮槸纭曞+鐢熷涔犲拰鍙戝睍鐨勫眬閮ㄧ幆澧冦€傜ぞ浼氬ぇ鐜鐨勫奖鍝嶈嚜鐒朵笉鍙伩鍏嶃€傝繖浜涘奖鍝嶅洜绱犵殑褰卞搷灞傛鍙婃満鍒跺鍥?鎵€绀恒€?/span>
 
銆€銆€鎬讳箣, 瀛︿範浣撻獙鏄鐢熷姹傚鏈熼棿鎵€鎺ヨЕ鐨勬暀鑲茶祫婧愩€佹牎鍥椿鍔ㄥ拰涓汉鎴愰暱绛夋柟闈㈡墍寰楃粡楠岀殑鎯呯华鎬х殑浣撲細鍜屽洖鍛炽€傛暀鑲插纭曞+鐢熺殑瀛︿範浣撻獙鍙楀埌涓嶅悓灞傛銆佷笉鍚屽唴瀹圭殑褰卞搷鍥犵礌鐨勫奖鍝嶃€備负浜嗘彁楂樼爺绌剁敓鍩瑰吇璐ㄩ噺, 鎴戜滑搴斿綋鏇村姞鍏虫敞瀛︾敓鐨勫垏韬綋楠? 浠庝簡瑙e拰鐞嗚В纭曞+鐢熺殑鐪熷疄鎰熷彈鍏ユ墜, 鍙嶆€濆甯堛€佸闄€佸鏍°€佺ぞ浼氱瓑涓讳綋, 鍦ㄨ祫婧愭敮鎸併€佸埗搴﹁璁″拰鐜钀ラ€犵瓑鏂归潰瀛樺湪鐨勪笉瓒? 浠ユ眰“鑷笅鑰屼笂”鍦板彂鐜板拰瑙e喅纭曞+鐢熷煿鍏讳腑鐨勮川閲忛棶棰樸€?/span>
 
銆€銆€鍙傝€冩枃鐚?/span>
 
銆€銆€[1] 涓浗鏁欒偛鍦ㄧ嚎.2018骞村叏鍥界爺绌剁敓鎷涚敓鏁版嵁璋冩煡鎶ュ憡[EB/OL].[2017-12-20].http://www.eol.cn/html/ky/2018report/list.shtml#ml.
 
銆€銆€[2] 鏁欒偛閮?鍥藉涓暱鏈熸暀鑲叉敼闈╁拰鍙戝睍瑙勫垝绾茶 (2010-2020骞? [EB/OL]. (2010-07-29) [2017-12-20].http://old.moe.gov.cn/publicfiles/business/htmlfiles/moe/info-list/201407/xxgk-171904.html.
 
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銆€銆€[4]绋嬪厜鏃? 姹畯, 闄堣姳鐜? 绛?鍩轰簬鐮旂┒鐢熸暀鑲查棶棰樼殑鏀归潻瀹炶返涓庢斂绛栧缓璁甗J].涓浗楂樼瓑鏁欒偛, 2009 (24) :24-27.
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