鎮ㄥソ锛屾杩庢偍鏉ュ埌纭曞崥鍘熷垱璁烘枃缃戯紒
璁烘枃鎻愮翰 | 寮€棰樻姤鍛?/a> | 璁烘枃鎽樿 | 鍙傝€冩枃鐚?/a> | 璁烘枃鑷磋阿 | 璁烘枃淇敼 | 璁烘枃閫夐 | 鐮旂┒鐢熻鏂?/a> | 宸ョ▼纭曞+ | 璁烘枃鍙戣〃 | 鏂囩尞缁艰堪 | 璁烘枃鏍煎紡
璁烘枃PPT妯℃澘 | 娉曞璁烘枃 | 甯傚満钀ラ攢 | 璇█瀛﹁鏂?/a> | 宸ョ▼绠$悊 | 绠$悊璁烘枃 | 閲戣瀺璁烘枃 | 鎶ょ悊璁烘枃 | 鑻辫璁烘枃 | 鍐滀笟璁烘枃 | 鏀挎不璁烘枃
>> 鏌愭潙鏀瑰眳绀惧尯缃戞牸鍖栫鐞嗛棶棰樻帰绌?/a>
>> 澶т綋绉贩鍑濆湡缁撴瀯鏂藉伐鐨勫噯澶囦笌鎶€鏈?/a>
>> 鐢靛奖銆婂織鎰胯€呫€嬭〃杈剧殑浜虹敓浠峰€艰鎺?/a>
>> 鏂板啝鐤儏涓嬬噧姘斿共琛f満鐨勫伐浣滃師鐞嗗強
>> 鍩轰簬澶ф暟鎹殑浼佷笟绠$悊闂涓庡垱鏂扮瓥
>> 褰撲唬澶у鐢熺殑淇′话銆佷汉鐢熺洰鏍囧拰浠峰€?/a>
>> 浼佷笟绠$悊涓祫浜ц瘎浼扮殑搴旂敤鏁堟灉鍒嗘瀽
>> 娴呮瀽褰卞搷璧勪骇璇勪及缁撴灉鐨勫洜绱?/a>
>> 涓浗鍥介槻鎴樼暐鍐呮兜瑙f瀽
>> 銆婄嫾鍥捐吘銆嬬炕璇戠瓥鐣ョ殑杩愮敤
>> 浜掕仈缃?瀵逛紒涓氱粡娴庣鐞嗗垱鏂扮殑褰卞搷鍙?/a>
>> 鍐滀笟缁忔祹绠$悊鍙婃妧鏈帹骞块棶棰樹笌瀵圭瓥
>> 浼︾悊瑙嗚涓嬫硶寰嬪叧绯荤殑鎺㈢┒
>> 姹熻タ鍑诲墤淇变箰閮ㄨ繍鍔ㄦ瘮璧涘紑灞曟帰绌?/a>
>> 楂樿亴绡悆鏁欏涓瓨鍦ㄧ殑闂涓庢敼闈╃瓥
>> 鍐滄潙灏忓璇枃璇惧墠棰勪範鐨勪綔鐢ㄤ笌瀹炴柦
>> 鍒濅腑鍖栧鏁欏涓叮鍛冲寲瀛﹀疄楠岀殑杩愮敤
>> 鎶戦儊鐥囧悍澶嶆偅鑰呭疄鏂界患鍚堝績鐞嗘姢鐞嗙殑
>> 绮剧鍒嗚鐥囨偅鑰呮仮澶嶄腑浜烘€у寲鎶ょ悊骞?/a>
>> 缃戠害杞︾殑娉曞緥鍏崇郴鍙婂叾瑙勫埗璺緞鍒嗘瀽
>> 椹亽鏄屽皬缁勭簿绁炵殑瀹炶返涓庣悊璁虹粨鍚?/a>
>> 娴呰皥涓氳储铻嶅悎涓嬭储鍔′汉鍛樼殑鍥板涓庤浆
>> 鎴垮湴浜у競鍦洪渶姹傜壒鎬т笌钀ラ攢鍏宠仈鍥犵礌
>> 鐏姏鍙戠數浼佷笟鑺傝兘鍑忔帓闂涓庡绛?/a>
>> 淇℃伅鍖栬儗鏅笅璐㈠姟浼氳宸ヤ綔鐨勯闄╁強
 
>> 鎮ㄧ殑浣嶇疆锛?a href='http://flywand.com/'>涓婚〉 > 鐮旂┒鐢熻鏂?/a> >  

闀挎槬绀惧尯灞呭鍏昏€佸仴搴锋湇鍔¢渶姹傞棶棰樻帰绌?/h1>

銆€

纭曞崥璁烘枃缃?/a>鏄竴瀹朵笓涓氭彁渚涜鏂囧畾鍒朵慨鏀规湇鍔$殑缃戠珯锛屼笂10骞寸殑璁烘枃缁忛獙锛屾棤璁烘槸鏈璁烘枃銆佺澹鏂囪繕鏄湡鍒婅鏂囷紝鍗氬+璁烘枃锛屾垜浠兘鑳戒负鎮ㄦ彁渚涙柟渚裤€佸揩鎹枫€佸畨鍏ㄧ殑璁烘枃鏈嶅姟銆備互涓嬫槸纭曞崥璁烘枃缃戝皬缂栦负鎮ㄧ簿蹇冩寫閫夌殑涓€绡囩爺绌剁敓璁烘枃鑼冩枃锛屽唴瀹规槸鍏充簬闀挎槬绀惧尯灞呭鍏昏€佸仴搴锋湇鍔¢渶姹傞棶棰樻帰绌躲€傞殢鐫€浜哄彛鑰侀緞鍖栫殑鍔犻€燂紝鑰佸勾浜哄彛鍩烘暟澶с€佸闀垮揩锛屽憟鐜伴珮榫勫寲銆佺┖宸㈠寲瓒嬪娍锛岄渶瑕佺収鏂欑殑澶辫兘銆佸崐澶辫兘鑰佷汉鏁伴噺鍓у锛屽洜姝ょぞ鍖哄眳瀹跺吇鑰佸簲杩愯€岀敓锛岀ぞ鍖哄眳瀹跺吇鑰佹槸瀹跺涵鍏昏€佸拰鏈烘瀯鍏昏€佺殑缁煎悎浣擄紝闆嗕腑浜嗗搴吇鑰佸拰鏈烘瀯鍏昏€佺殑浼樺娍锛屾槸瀵瑰搴吇鑰佸拰鏈烘瀯鍏昏€佹柟寮忕殑鏈夋晥鏁村悎锛屼笉浠呭疄鐜颁簡鑰佸勾浜哄湪瀹朵腑鍏昏€佺殑渚垮埄鎬с€佽€屼笖婊¤冻浜嗚€佸勾浜哄瀹跺涵鐨勫綊灞炴劅锛屽苟涓斿悎鐞嗗埄鐢ㄤ簡瀹跺涵鍜岀ぞ鍖虹殑鐗╄川鍜屼汉鍔涜祫婧愶紝闄嶄綆浜嗗搴吇鑰佽垂鐢ㄧ殑鏀嚭鍜岀ぞ浼氬吇鑰佺殑鎴愭湰锛岃繖鏄垜鍥藉簲瀵硅€侀緞鍖栧嵄鏈哄拰缂轰箯鍏昏€佽祫婧愮殑鏂板瀷鍏昏€佹柟寮忥紝濡備綍浣跨ぞ鍖哄眳瀹跺吇鑰佹ā寮忚繍琛岃壇濂斤紝璁╄€佷汉瀵硅繖绉嶅吇鑰佹柟寮忔劅鍒版弧鎰忓苟涓旀敮鎸佹槸鐜板湪搴旇瑙e喅鐨勯棶棰樸€備互渚涘悇浣嶅悓瀛﹀弬鑰冿紝甯屾湜瀵瑰ぇ瀹舵湁鎵€甯姪銆?/span>

鎽?瑕?/span>銆€銆€鐩殑锛氶€氳繃瀵归暱鏄ュ競绀惧尯灞呭鍏昏€佸仴搴锋湇鍔¢渶姹傜幇鐘剁殑璋冩煡锛屼簡瑙e綋鍓嶅湪绀惧尯灞呭鍏昏€佸仴搴锋湇鍔¢渶姹備笂瀛樺湪鐨勯棶棰樺拰涓昏褰卞搷鍥犵礌锛屼负鏀垮簻鍜屽叾浠栧伐浣滀汉鍛樻彁渚涗竴瀹氱殑鐞嗚鍙傝€冨拰鍊熼壌锛屼负浠ュ悗鏇村ソ鍦颁负绀惧尯灞呭鑰佸勾浜烘彁渚涘仴搴锋湇鍔¢」鐩彁渚涘弬鑰冧緷鎹€?/span>
銆€銆€
銆€銆€鏂规硶锛氶€氳繃渚垮埄鎶芥牱鐨勬柟娉曪紝浠ャ€婅€佸勾浜哄眳瀹跺吇鑰佺幇鐘惰皟鏌ヨ〃銆嬪拰銆婅€佸勾浜哄吇鑰佹剰鎰垮強灞呭鍏昏€佹湇鍔¢渶姹傝皟鏌ヨ〃銆嬩负鐮旂┒宸ュ叿锛屽闀挎槬甯?28 涓ぞ鍖哄崼鐢熸湇鍔′腑蹇冪鍚堢撼鍏ユ爣鍑嗙殑 1000 鍚嶈€佸勾浜鸿繘琛岄棶鍗疯皟鏌ワ紝灏嗚皟鏌ユ暟鎹綍鍏?Excel 涓紝閲囩敤 SPSS22.0杩涜缁熻鍒嗘瀽锛岃閲忚祫鏂欎互x +s 琛ㄧず锛岄噰鐢?t 妫€楠岋紝璁℃暟璧勬枡閲囩敤χ2妫€楠屽強澶氬洜绱燣ogistic 鍥炲綊鍒嗘瀽锛屼互 P<0.05 涓哄樊寮傛湁缁熻瀛︽剰涔夈€?/span>
 
銆€銆€缁撴灉锛氣憼鏈堟敹鍏ュ湪 4000-5000 鍏冪殑鑰佸勾浜烘墍鍗犳瘮渚嬭緝澶氾紝鍗?69.5%锛屼富瑕佷緷闈犻€€浼戦噾锛?0%锛夊拰瀛愬コ琛ヨ创锛?7.4%锛夛紱57.9%鑰佸勾浜哄浜庣嫭灞呯姸鎬侊紱浠呮湁 24.7%鐨勮€佸勾浜哄仴搴风姸鍐佃壇濂斤紝鎱㈡€х梾鎮g梾鐜囪緝楂樼殑鐤剧梾锛氱硸灏跨梾锛?4.0%锛夛紝鍏宠妭鐐庯紙23.7%锛夛紝鑲濈‖鍖栵紙22.8%锛夈€佸啝蹇冪梾锛?1.8%锛夈€佹參鎬ц儍鐐庯紙21.8%锛夛紱62.5%鐨勮€佸勾浜烘効鎰忛€夋嫨灞呭鍏昏€佸拰瀛愬コ鍏昏€併€傗憽鍗曞洜绱犲垎鏋愮粨鏋滄樉绀猴紝褰卞搷鑰佸勾浜哄吇鑰佹柟寮忛€夋嫨褰卞搷鍥犵礌鏈夊濮荤姸鍐点€佹偅鎱㈡€х梾锛堣剳鍗掍腑銆侀珮琛€鑴傘€佹參鎬ц儍鐐庯級锛屽樊寮傛湁缁熻瀛︽剰涔夛紙P<0.05锛夈€傗憿鑰佸勾浜洪€夋嫨鍏昏€佹柟寮忕殑澶氬洜绱犲垎鏋愮粨鏋滄樉绀猴細宸插涓旈厤鍋跺仴鍦ㄣ€佹偅楂樿鑴傘€佽剳鍗掍腑銆佹參鎬ц儍鐐庣殑鑰佸勾浜鸿秺鍊惧悜浜庨€夋嫨灞呭鍏昏€侊紙P锛?.05)銆傗懀鍦ㄨ€佸勾浜哄眳瀹跺吇鑰佹湇鍔¢渶姹備腑锛岄渶姹傜▼搴︿緷娆′负璇峰嚭鎴锋湇鍔°€佹枃鍖栨暀鑲叉湇鍔°€佹硶寰嬬淮鏉冩湇鍔°€佷綋鑲插仴韬湇鍔°€侀€€浼戜簨鍔″挩璇㈡湇鍔°€?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€缁撹锛氣憼鐩墠绀惧尯鑰佸勾浜虹殑鍋ュ悍鐘跺喌涓嶇悊鎯筹紝鎱㈡€х梾鐨勬偅鐥呯巼寰堥珮銆傗憽澶у鏁拌€佸勾浜烘効鎰忛€夋嫨灞呭鍏昏€併€傗憿鑰佸勾浜哄濮荤姸鍐点€佹偅鎱㈡€х梾锛堣剳鍗掍腑銆侀珮琛€鑴傘€佹參鎬ц儍鐐庯級鏄奖鍝嶈€佸勾浜洪€夋嫨鍏昏€佹柟寮忕殑涓昏鍥犵礌锛涚ぞ鍖鸿€佸勾浜哄灞呭鍏昏€佹湇鍔$殑闇€姹傚緢楂橈紝鍏朵腑璇峰嚭鎴锋湇鍔°€佹枃鍖栨暀鑲叉湇鍔°€佹硶寰嬬淮鏉冩湇鍔$瓑鏄€佸勾浜烘渶杩垏鐨勯渶姹傘€?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€鍏抽敭璇嶏細灞呭鍏昏€侊紱浜哄彛鑰侀緞鍖栵紱绀惧尯鏈嶅姟锛涘吇鑰佸仴搴锋湇鍔°€?/span>
闀挎槬绀惧尯灞呭鍏昏€佸仴搴锋湇鍔¢渶姹傞棶棰樻帰绌? src=
銆€銆€
銆€銆€Abstract
銆€銆€
銆€銆€Objective: This subject’s aim is to investigate the current situation of the demand for health services of the elderly at home in Changchun City, to understand the existing problems and the main influencing factors in the demand for health services of the elderly at home in Changchun City, and provide theoretical reference for the government and other staff, so as to provide reference for better providing health services for the elderly at home in the community in the future.
銆€銆€
銆€銆€Methods: By using the method of random sampling and the Questionnaire on the living status of the elderly and the Questionnaire on the Willingness and Demand for Home-based Old-age Care Services of the Elderly, a questionnaire survey was conducted among 1000 elderly people who met the inclusion criteria in 28 community health service centers in Changchun City. The survey data were recorded in Excel, SPSS22.0 was used for statistical analysis, and the measurement data were expressed by mean ±standard deviation,t test, χ2test and multivariate Logistic regression. P<0.05 was statistically significant.
銆€銆€
銆€銆€Results: (1) the monthly income of the elderly in the 4,000-5,000 yuan accounts for a large proportion, accounting for 69.5%, mainly rely on pension (30%) and children's subsidies (27.4%); 57.9 percent of the elderly live alone; Only 24.7% of the elderly were in good health, and the diseases with high prevalence of chronic diseases were diabetes (24.0%), arthritis (23.7%), cirrhosis (22.8%), coronary heart disease (21.8%) and chronic gastritis (21.8%). 62.5% of the elderly are willing to choose home care and children care.
銆€銆€
銆€銆€(2) the results of single factor analysis showed that marital status and chronic diseases (stroke, hyperlipidemia and chronic gastritis) were the influencing factors for elderly people's choice of old-age care mode, and the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05). (3) the results of multi-factor analysis on the elderly's choice of old-age care mode showed that the elderly who were married and had a healthy spouse, suffered from hyperlipidemia, stroke and chronic gastritis were more inclined to choose home-based old-age care (P < 0.05). (4) in the elderly home care service needs, the degree of demand for services, cultural and educational services, legal rights services, sports and fitness services, retirement consulting services.
銆€銆€
銆€銆€Conclusion: 鈶燭he current health status of the elderly in the community is not ideal,and the prevalence of chronic diseases is high.鈶ost of the elderly are willing to choose home-based pension. 鈶arriage status, chronic diseases (stroke, hyperlipidemia, chronic gastritis) are the main factors affecting the elderly's choice of old-age care mode; the elderly in community have a higher demand for home-based old-age care services,outdoor services, cultural and educational services, legal rights protection services are the most urgent needs of the elderly.
銆€銆€
銆€銆€Key words:   Home-based care for the aged锛汚ging population锛汣ommunity service锛汷ld-age health service銆?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€寮?瑷€
銆€銆€
銆€銆€浜哄彛鑰侀緞鍖栧凡缁忔垚涓哄洶鎵颁汉绫诲彂灞曠殑涓栫晫鎬ч棶棰榌1]銆傝€侀緞绀句細鏄户鍐滀笟闈╁懡銆佸伐涓氶潻鍛藉悗鐨勫ぇ鍋ュ悍浜т笟闈╁懡锛岃繖鍦?ldquo;鏃犲0鐨勯潻鍛?rdquo;浜︾粰鎴戝浗甯︽潵涓ラ噸鐨勫啿鍑汇€傚洜姝ゅ吇鑰侀棶棰樼粰绀句細鍜屾斂搴滃甫鏉ヤ簡鏂扮殑鎸戞垬锛屽湪鏋勫缓鍜岃皭绀句細鏂归潰锛岃繖涓€閲嶅ぇ姘戠敓闂锛屽繀椤诲緱鍒版斂搴滃拰绀句細鐨勯珮搴﹂噸瑙嗐€傛埅鑷?2017 骞村勾搴曪紝涓浗 60 宀侊紙鍚級浠ヤ笂鐨勮€佸勾浜哄凡杈?2.4 浜匡紝鍗犳€讳汉鍙g殑 20%锛堝叿浣撲负 17.3%锛夛紝杩欐剰鍛崇潃鍙湁鍥涗釜鍔冲姩鍔涘叡鍚屾壙鎷呰捣璧″吇涓€浣嶈€佷汉鐨勮矗浠籟2]銆?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€浜哄彛鐨勯噸搴﹁€侀緞鍖栧皢瀵瑰吇鑰併€佸尰鐤楃瓑鍩烘湰绀句細淇濋殰浣撶郴鎻愬嚭涓ュ郴鑰冮獙銆傚洜姝わ紝濡備綍鍦?ldquo;鏈瘜鍏堣€?rdquo;鍜?ldquo;鏈鍏堣€?rdquo;鐨勭幇瀹炶儗鏅笅锛屾帰绱竴绉嶇鍚堟垜鍥藉浗鎯呬娇鑰佸勾浜鸿兘澶熼鍏诲ぉ骞达紝鍙堣兘鎺ㄥ箍寮€鏉ュ叿鏈夋櫘閬嶆€ф剰涔夌殑鍏昏€佹柟寮忥紝鏄幇闃舵浜熼』瑙e喅鐨勯棶棰樸€?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€缁撳悎褰撳墠鑰侀緞鍖栭棶棰橈紝鍚夋灄鐪佷汉姘戞斂搴滀笅鍙戜簡銆婂悏鏋楃渷浜烘皯鏀垮簻鍔炲叕鍘呭叧浜庡嵃鍙戝悏鏋楃渷鑰侀緞浜嬩笟鍙戝睍鍜屽吇鑰佷綋绯诲缓璁?ldquo;鍗佷笁浜?rdquo;瑙勫垝鐨勯€氱煡銆媅3]锛屾枃浠跺唴瀹规牴鎹垜鐪佽€侀緞鍖栧疄闄呮儏鍐靛埗瀹氬搴旂殑鍏釜鍙戝睍鐩爣锛屽叾涓槑纭彁鍑哄仴鍏ㄥ吇鑰佹湇鍔′綋绯伙紝灏嗛噸鐐瑰彂灞曞眳瀹跺吇鑰佹湇鍔★紝閲嶇偣鍏虫敞鍩烘湰鍏昏€佸拰鏈嶅姟闇€姹傦紝鍔犲揩鍏昏€佹湇鍔″埗搴﹀寲銆佽鑼冨寲銆佺ぞ浼氬寲寤鸿銆傚洜姝ら渶瑕佸湪浜嗚В瀹為檯鎯呭喌鐨勫墠鎻愪笅锛屾壘鍒扮鍚堢ぞ浼氱粡娴庣幇鐘剁殑鍏昏€佹ā寮忥紝杈惧埌鑰佸勾浜哄鐢熸椿鏍稿鍐呭績绮剧鐨勮姹傦紝闄嶄綆瀛愬コ璧″吇璐熸媴锛屽湪鏈€浣庣殑绀句細鎴愭湰鐨勫墠鎻愪笅锛屼互鏈€浼樼殑鏂瑰紡鍊熷姪浜庣ぞ浼氳祫婧愩€?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€鐩墠涓浗鏈変笁绉嶅吇鑰佹柟寮忥紝鍒嗗埆鏄搴吇鑰併€佹満鏋勫吇鑰佸拰绀惧尯鍏昏€併€傞殢鐫€浜哄彛鑰侀緞鍖栫殑鍔犻€燂紝鑰佸勾浜哄彛鍩烘暟澶с€佸闀垮揩锛屽憟鐜伴珮榫勫寲銆佺┖宸㈠寲瓒嬪娍锛岄渶瑕佺収鏂欑殑澶辫兘銆佸崐澶辫兘鑰佷汉鏁伴噺鍓у锛屽洜姝ょぞ鍖哄眳瀹跺吇鑰佸簲杩愯€岀敓锛岀ぞ鍖哄眳瀹跺吇鑰佹槸瀹跺涵鍏昏€佸拰鏈烘瀯鍏昏€佺殑缁煎悎浣擄紝闆嗕腑浜嗗搴吇鑰佸拰鏈烘瀯鍏昏€佺殑浼樺娍锛屾槸瀵瑰搴吇鑰佸拰鏈烘瀯鍏昏€佹柟寮忕殑鏈夋晥鏁村悎锛屼笉浠呭疄鐜颁簡鑰佸勾浜哄湪瀹朵腑鍏昏€佺殑渚垮埄鎬с€佽€屼笖婊¤冻浜嗚€佸勾浜哄瀹跺涵鐨勫綊灞炴劅锛屽苟涓斿悎鐞嗗埄鐢ㄤ簡瀹跺涵鍜岀ぞ鍖虹殑鐗╄川鍜屼汉鍔涜祫婧愶紝闄嶄綆浜嗗搴吇鑰佽垂鐢ㄧ殑鏀嚭鍜岀ぞ浼氬吇鑰佺殑鎴愭湰锛岃繖鏄垜鍥藉簲瀵硅€侀緞鍖栧嵄鏈哄拰缂轰箯鍏昏€佽祫婧愮殑鏂板瀷鍏昏€佹柟寮忥紝濡備綍浣跨ぞ鍖哄眳瀹跺吇鑰佹ā寮忚繍琛岃壇濂斤紝璁╄€佷汉瀵硅繖绉嶅吇鑰佹柟寮忔劅鍒版弧鎰忓苟涓旀敮鎸佹槸鐜板湪搴旇瑙e喅鐨勯棶棰樸€傛枃鐚患杩? 绀惧尯灞呭鍏昏€佺殑瀹氫箟鍙婄浉鍏崇悊璁恒€?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€1.1 绀惧尯灞呭鍏昏€佸畾涔夈€?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€2011 骞达紝鎴戝浗鎻愬嚭浜嗙ぞ鍖哄眳瀹跺吇鑰佺殑姒傚康銆傝鍏昏€佹ā寮忓叿鏈変互涓嬪嚑涓柟闈㈢殑鐗瑰緛锛?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€涓€鏄笌鎴戝浗浼犵粺鐨勫吇鑰佹柟寮忕浉浼硷紝涓昏渚濋潬瀹跺涵锛涗簩鏄富瑕佸吇鑰佺殑鍦烘墍涓嶆槸瀹跺涵锛岃€屾槸鍦ㄧぞ鍖猴紝鐢辩ぞ鍖烘彁渚涳紱涓夋槸鏈嶅姟瀵硅薄鏄?65 宀佷互涓婄殑鑰佷汉锛涘洓鏄湇鍔$殑鍐呭鏄寘鍚尰鐤楀崼鐢熺収椤炬湇鍔°€傜浉瀵规潵璇达紝杩欎簺鏈嶅姟鍐呭姣旇緝骞挎硾锛岃€屼笖鏂瑰紡鐩稿鐏垫椿锛屾按骞充篃鏇村姞涓撲笟[4]銆備粠鏌愮鎰忎箟涓婅锛岀ぞ鍖哄眳瀹跺吇鑰佷笉浠呬笌鎴戝浗浼犵粺鐨勫搴吇鑰佹柟寮忔湁寰堝鐨勪氦鍙夛紝淇濇寔浜嗗師鏈夌殑鑰佸勾浜虹敓娲荤幆澧冨拰绀句細鍦堝瓙锛屽悓鏃朵篃鍙互鑾峰緱鏇撮珮鐨勫吇鑰佹湇鍔°€?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€鎴戝浗褰撳墠鐨勫吇鑰佷负“9073 鍏昏€佹ā寮?rdquo;锛岃繖鎰忓懗鐫€ 90%浠ヤ笂鐨勮€佸勾浜轰緷鐒堕€夋嫨鍦ㄥ涓繘琛屽吇鑰侊紝7%鐨勮€佸勾浜哄湪绀惧尯鎵樼鍏昏€侊紝鍙︽湁 3%鐨勮€佸勾浜洪€夋嫨鍏昏€佹満鏋勫吇鑰併€傞殢鐫€鎴戝浗绀句細缁忔祹鐨勫彂灞曪紝鍏昏€佹ā寮忎篃鍦ㄤ笉鏂湴鍙戠敓鍙樺寲銆?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€1.2 绀惧尯灞呭鍏昏€佺殑鐩稿叧鐞嗚銆?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€1989 骞达紝鑻卞浗鍏昏€佺粍缁囨彁鍑轰簡绀惧尯鐓ч【鐞嗚锛屾牴鎹繖涓悊璁猴紝鑻卞浗鐨勫吇鑰佷富瑕佹槸渚濋潬绀惧尯锛屽悓鏃惰繕鏈変竴閮ㄥ垎閫夋嫨鏈烘瀯鍜屽搴€傚叾涓ぞ鍖虹殑鍏昏€佺浉瀵规瘮杈冧笓涓氾紝鑰屼笖宸茬粡褰㈡垚浜嗘湇鍔$綉缁滀綋绯伙紝鑳芥彁渚涘悇绉嶄笓涓氱殑鏈嶅姟[5]銆傚眳瀹跺吇鑰佹湇鍔$悊璁烘ā寮忎紭鐐瑰緢鏄庢樉锛屽氨鏄笉浠呰兘澶熶繚鎸佽€佸勾浜哄師鏈夌殑鐢熸椿鐜锛屽悓鏃朵篃鑳藉浜彈杈冮珮姘村钩鐨勪笓涓氭湇鍔°€?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€Clayton Alderfer 鍦ㄩ┈鏂礇鐨勭爺绌舵帰绱笅鎵€鎻愬嚭鐨?ERG 鐞嗚锛屽鍏昏€佹ā寮忕殑涓嶆柇鎺㈢储锛屼篃鏄綋鍓嶅吇鑰佸彂灞曠殑涓€绉嶆柊瓒嬪娍[6]锛屼负浠婂悗鍏昏€佹ā寮忕殑鍙戝睍鎸囨槑浜嗘柟鍚戯紝浣滃嚭浜嗘柊鐨勬帰绱€?965 骞?Rose 鎻愬嚭浜嗗吇鑰佹湇鍔℃枃鍖栫悊璁猴紝璁や负鍏昏€佸叿鏈夊緢澶х殑涓綋宸紓锛屽挨鍏舵槸鍙楁暀鑲茬▼搴︺€佸搴幆澧冪瓑鍥犵礌鏄奖鍝嶅叾鍏昏€侀渶姹傚樊寮傜殑宸ㄥぇ鍘熷洜銆傚悓鏃讹紝濡傛灉涓嶅悓绀句細鍦颁綅鍜屼釜浜烘潯浠剁殑鑰佷汉浜彈鍚屾牱鐨勭ぞ浼氭湇鍔★紝浼氫娇鑰佷汉浜х敓寮虹儓鐨勫績鐞嗘尝鍔紝褰卞搷浠栦滑鐨勬儏缁拰蹇冩儏銆備粠褰撳墠鐨勫叿浣撳疄璺垫儏鍐垫潵璇达紝鑰佸勾浜洪€€浼戝疄闄呬笂宸茬粡鏄€€鍑轰簡鍘熷鐨勫伐浣滅敓娲诲湀瀛愶紝閲嶆柊寮€濮嬩簡鏂扮殑鐢熸椿锛屽叾绀句氦鐢熸椿閮戒細鍙戠敓涓€瀹氱殑鍙樺寲锛屽湪杩欑鎯呭喌涓嬶紝鑰佸勾浜虹殑蹇冪悊浼氬彈鍒颁竴瀹氱殑鍐插嚮锛屾墍浠ュ彧鏈夊敖閲忎繚璇佸師鏈夌殑鐜涓嶅彉锛屾墠鑳戒繚璇佷粬浠殑绮剧鍜屽績鐞嗕笉鍙戠敓杈冨ぇ鐨勬尝鍔ㄣ€傚眳瀹跺吇鑰佹ā寮忓氨鑳藉涓轰粬浠彁渚涜繖绉嶇幆澧冦€?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€2 鍥藉唴澶栫ぞ鍖哄眳瀹跺吇鑰佹ā寮忕殑鐮旂┒鐜扮姸銆?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€2.1 鍥藉灞呭鍋ュ悍鍏昏€佸疄璺垫ā寮忋€?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€鏃ユ湰鐨勫鍏冨寲鏈嶅姟銆?000 骞达紝鏃ユ湰寮€灞曚簡鍏昏€佹湇鍔℃椿鍔紝涓嶆柇鎵╁ぇ鑰佸勾浜哄吇鑰佹笭閬擄紝涓€鏂归潰鎻愬€¤€佸勾浜轰緷闈犲搴繘琛屽吇鑰侊紝浣嗘槸涓庢鍚屾椂涔熶笉鏂姪鎺ㄧぞ鍖哄吇鑰乕7]銆傛棩鏈吇鑰佸埗搴﹁瀹氾紝鎵€鏈夊叕姘戝繀椤诲湪 40 宀佷箣鍚庤缂寸撼鐩稿簲鐨勫吇鑰佷繚闄╋紝骞朵负鍏惰繘鍏ヨ€佸勾浜彈鐩稿簲鐨勫尰鐤楁姢鐞嗙瓑鏈嶅姟鍋氬噯澶囥€傚吇鑰佷繚闄╂槸鏃ユ湰鑰佷汉杩涜鍏昏€佺殑涓昏鍩洪噾鍌ㄥ锛岀即绾充簡淇濋櫓閲戯紝灏卞彲浠ュ湪杩涘叆鑰佸勾鍚庝韩鍙楃敓娲绘姢鐞嗐€佸尰鐤楀仴搴锋姢鐞嗐€佹棩甯镐繚鍋ユ姢鐞嗗拰绮剧鎶ょ悊绛夋柟闈㈢殑鏈嶅姟銆?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€鑻卞浗鐨勫叏鏂逛綅涓€浣撳寲鏈嶅姟銆傚湪 20 涓栫邯 70 骞翠唬锛岃嫳鍥藉缓绔嬩簡绀惧尯鎵樼鍏昏€佹ā寮忥紝杩欑妯″紡鍦ㄨ嫳鍥界殑缁忔祹绀句細鍙戝睍涓彂鎸ョ潃閲嶈浣滅敤锛岀壒鍒槸鍦ㄨ€佸勾浜虹粡娴庡彂灞曡繖涓€棰嗗煙[8]銆傝嫳鍥藉绀惧尯鍏昏€佹瘮杈冩帹宕囷紝涓诲紶澶у鏁拌€佸勾浜洪兘鑳藉鍦ㄧぞ鍖鸿繘琛屽吇鑰併€傝嫳鍥藉鑰?Powell JL 绛変汉鎴愮珛浜嗕笓闂ㄧ殑鍏昏€佺ぞ浼氬伐浣滅粍锛屾潵璺熻釜璋冩煡鍦ㄧぞ鍖鸿繘琛屽吇鑰佺殑鑰佷汉锛屽苟璁板綍鐩稿簲鐨勬寚鏍嘯9]銆傞€氳繃鐩稿簲鎸囨爣鐨勬瘮杈冿紝閫夊嚭姣旇緝鍚堥€傜殑鍏昏€佹ā寮忋€?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€婢冲ぇ鍒╀簹鐨勫灞傛鏈嶅姟銆傛境澶у埄浜氱殑鑰佸勾浜哄彛鍦ㄤ笘鐣屼笂灞呬簬棣栦綅锛岃€屼笖澧為暱閫熷害闈炲父蹇紝浣嗘槸涓庢鍚屾椂锛岃繖绉嶆儏鍐典篃浣夸粬浠Н绱簡涓板瘜鐨勫吇鑰佺粡楠屻€傜洰鍓嶅凡缁忓缓绔嬩簡瀹屽杽鐨勭ぞ鍖烘墭绠℃湇鍔′綋绯汇€佸搴紡鍏昏€佹湇鍔$鐞嗙粍缁囥€佺ぞ浼氬吇鑰佹満鏋勭珯锛屽鑰佷汉浠彁渚涗簡瀹夊叏鏀惧績鐨勫吇鑰佹ā寮忥紝鑰佷汉鍙换鎰忛€夋嫨鑷繁涓剰鐨勫吇鑰佹柟寮廩10-12]銆傜洰鍓嶏紝婢冲ぇ鍒╀簹宸茬粡瀵硅€佸勾浜虹殑鏈嶅姟杩涜浜嗗叿浣撶殑鍒嗙被锛屽悓鏃舵牴鎹笉鍚岀殑鏈嶅姟绛夌骇鍒跺畾鐩稿簲鐨勪环鏍兼爣鍑哰13]銆傚悓鏃跺凡缁忔瀯寤鸿捣浜嗙ぞ鍖哄吇鑰佹湇鍔$殑缁煎悎缃戠粶浣撶郴锛屽熀鏈笂鎵€鏈夐渶瑕佸吇鑰佺殑鑰佷汉閮藉凡缁忕撼鍏ヤ簡杩欎釜鏈嶅姟浣撶郴涔嬩腑銆?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€缇庡浗鐨勪富鍔ㄦ湇鍔°€傜編鍥芥棭鍦ㄤ笂涓笘绾?70 骞翠唬灏卞ぇ鍔涙帹骞垮眳瀹跺吇鑰侊紝鎻愬€¤€佸勾浜洪€夋嫨灞呭鍏昏€佹ā寮忓吇鑰乕14]銆侹ane 绛変竴浜涗笓瀹跺鑰呴€氳繃鐮旂┒璁や负鍦ㄧ編鍥藉眳瀹跺吇鑰佹槸涓绘祦锛屾満鏋勫吇鑰佷粎浠呮槸琛ュ厖[15]銆傜編鍥芥斂搴滃湪澶у姏鎻愬€″眳瀹跺吇鑰佹ā寮忕殑鍚屾椂锛屼篃閫氳繃鍏蜂綋鐨勮皟鐮斾负鑰佷汉鎻愪緵鏈夐拡瀵规€х殑鏈嶅姟锛屽苟涓斿鍔犲吇鑰佷繚闄╃悊鐤楁姢鐞嗘湇鍔℃彁渚涚浉搴旂殑璧勯噾鏉ユ簮銆傚浜庝笉鍚岀殑鑰佷汉鎻愪緵鏈夊樊寮傜殑鏈嶅姟锛氶鍏堟槸鐢卞織鎰胯€呬负鏈ぞ鍖虹殑 55 宀佷互涓婁綋寮卞鐥呯殑鑰佸勾浜烘彁渚涗笓闂ㄧ湅鎶わ紱鍏舵鏄浜庡搴潯浠舵瘮杈冨洶闅剧殑鑰佸勾浜烘彁渚涚浉搴旂殑鏁戝姪閲戯紱鍐嶆鏄浜庢湁鍏昏€侀噾鐨勯€€浼戜汉鍛橈紝鎻愪緵杈冨鐨勯€夋嫨妯″紡锛屾瘮濡傛満鏋勫吇鑰併€佺ぞ鍖哄吇鑰佹垨鑰呮槸搴勫洯鍏昏€併€傚姝や紬澶氱殑鍏昏€佹ā寮忥紝鍙互涓轰笉鍚岀殑缇や綋鎻愪緵鏇村姞鏈夐拡瀵规€х殑鏈嶅姟锛屾彁楂樻湇鍔$殑璐ㄩ噺[16]銆?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€2.2 鍥藉唴灞呭鍏昏€佸疄璺垫ā寮忕幇鐘躲€?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€鎴戝浗缁忔祹鍙戝睍鏅氾紝鍏昏€佹湇鍔′篃钀藉悗浜庡叾浠栧浗瀹躲€傚湪 20 涓栫邯 80 骞翠唬鎴戝浗棣栨鎻愬嚭浜嗙ぞ鍖鸿€佸勾鎵樼鍏昏€佽鍒掔殑瀹炴柦鍑嗗垯锛屼緷鎹鏂规涓嶅悓鐨勬斂搴滈儴闂ㄥ彂甯冧簡鐩稿簲浜嗘枃浠讹紝鍦ㄥ叏鍥借寖鍥村唴杩呴€熸帹骞垮眳瀹跺吇鑰併€傚眳瀹跺吇鑰佸彂灞曟瘮杈冭繀閫熺殑鏄湪鍩庡競锛岃繖涓庡綋鍦扮殑缁忔祹鍙戝睍姘村钩鍜屼汉浠殑娑堣垂瑙傚康鏈夊緢澶х殑鍏崇郴銆傚湪鍥藉鐨勫ぇ鍔涙敮鎸佷笅锛屾垜鍥藉緢澶氬湴鏂瑰凡缁忓舰鎴愪簡灞呭鍏昏€佹湇鍔′綋绯伙紝骞朵笖褰㈡垚浜嗕竴瀹氱殑瑙勬ā锛屽叿澶囦簡涓€瀹氱殑鐗硅壊銆?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€涓婃捣鏄垜鍥藉眳瀹跺吇鑰佺殑璇曠偣鍩庡競涔嬩竴锛屽叾鏈嶅姟妯″紡濡備笅[17]銆傞鍏堬紝瀵硅€佸勾浜虹殑闇€姹傝繘琛岃皟鏌ユ⒊鐞嗭紝鐒跺悗瀵逛笉鍚岀殑鑰佸勾浜鸿繘琛岀浉搴旂殑鍒嗙被锛岀粨鍚堝垎绫讳负鑰佸勾浜哄彂鏀句笉鍚岀殑鏈嶅姟鍒弄€傚彟澶栵紝鍒跺畾鐩稿簲鐨勬湇鍔℃爣鍑嗭紝璁╂湇鍔℃洿鍔犺鑼冦€傛渶鍚庯紝缁х画鎻愰珮鏈嶅姟姘村钩锛屾彁渚涙湁閽堝鎬х殑鏈嶅姟锛屾弧瓒充笉鍚岀兢浣撶殑闇€姹傘€備笂娴锋ā寮忕浉瀵规槸姣旇緝鎴愬姛鐨勶紝涓哄叏鍥藉叾浠栧煄甯傛彁渚涗簡鏈夌敤鐨勫€熼壌鍜屽弬鑰冦€傛姹夐潪甯搁噸瑙嗗吇鑰侀棶棰橈紝涓昏鍊熷姪绀句細鍏昏€佸織鎰胯€呯殑鍔涢噺涓鸿€佷汉鎻愪緵鐩稿簲鐨勬湇鍔★紝鐗瑰埆鏄拡瀵圭┖宸㈣€佷汉锛屽湪鎻愪緵鏃ュ父鐢熸椿鐓ф枡绛夋湇鍔$殑鍚屾椂寮€灞曠簿绁炴叞钘夋湇鍔°€傝繖鍦ㄥ叏鍥戒篃鏄蛋鍦ㄤ簡鍓嶅垪銆傛睙鑻忕殑灞呭鍏昏€佹ā寮忓彲浠ユ鎷负“涓夌ぞ鑱斿姩”妯″紡锛屼篃灏辨槸涓昏渚濋潬绀惧尯銆佺ぞ宸ュ拰绀炬埛鑱斿悎浜掑姩锛屾彁渚涙洿鍔犻珮璐ㄩ噺鐨勬湇鍔18]銆傛繁鍦冲競鐨勫吇鑰佹ā寮忔瘮杈冧釜鎬у寲锛屼富瑕佹槸閽堝涓嶅悓鐨勮€佷汉閲忚韩瀹氬埗鍚堢悊鐨勫吇鑰佹ā寮忋€?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€姝ゅ锛屾垜鍥藉鑰呴檲鑺砙19]銆佺敯鐢淸20]绛変汉閫氳繃瀹炲湴鑰冨療鍜岃皟鐮斿涓€浜涘湴鍖虹殑鑰佸勾浜鸿繘琛屼簡鐜扮姸浜嗚В锛屽彂鐜帮紝褰撳墠绀句細瓒婃潵瓒婂彂灞曪紝鏀瑰彉浜嗗師鏈夌殑瀹跺涵妯″紡锛屽挨鍏舵槸姣忓姣忔埛鐨勪汉鍙e紑濮嬪彉灏戯紝瀹跺涵瑙勬ā鍙樺皬锛屾墍浠ュ湪杩欑鎯呭喌涓嬶紝浠呬緷闈犲浜哄吇鑰佸氨瀛樺湪涓€瀹氱殑闂銆傚瓙濂虫病鏈夋洿澶氱殑鏃堕棿鍜岀簿鍔涚収椤惧拰闄即鑰佷汉锛岀ぞ浼氫笂涓鸿€佸勾浜烘彁渚涚殑鏈嶅姟涔熸弧瓒充笉浜嗚€佷汉鐨勯渶姹傦紝鍥犳锛屽湪杩欑鎯呭喌涓嬶紝灞呭鍏昏€佷笌绀惧尯鎵樼鍏昏€佺殑缁撳悎灏辫В鍐充簡杩欐柟闈㈢殑闂銆備笌姝ゅ悓鏃讹紝瓒婃潵瓒婂鐨勮€佸勾浜轰篃寮€濮嬮€夋嫨灞呭鍏昏€侊紝閫夋嫨涓嶈繙绂诲搴韩鍙楅珮璐ㄩ噺鐨勪笓涓氭湇鍔°€?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€2.3“浜掕仈缃?”鍦ㄧぞ鍖哄眳瀹跺吇鑰佹湇鍔$殑鐮旂┒銆?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€鎴戝浗鐪熸瀹炶鎺ㄥ箍绀惧尯灞呭鍏昏€佹ā寮忕殑鏃堕棿鏄?2015 骞达紝鍥藉姟闄㈡彁鍑鸿绉瀬鍒涘缓鍋ュ悍鍏昏€佸垱鏂板吇鑰佹柊妯″紡锛屽苟瀵规柊鍨嬪吇鑰佹ā寮忚繘琛屼簡鏈夋晥鐨勬寚瀵间笌骞查銆傜壒鍒嵃鍙戜簡锛屻€?ldquo;浜掕仈缃?”涓嬬殑鐩婃皯鏈嶅姟銆嬫湇鍔℃剰瑙佹彁鍑猴紝灏嗕腑鍥藉吇鑰佷簨涓氫綔涓虹ぞ浼氬彂灞曠殑閲嶈缁勬垚閮ㄥ垎锛屼緷鎵樼ぞ鍖虹殑鍩虹璧勬簮锛屼负绀惧尯鑰佸勾浜烘彁渚涢ギ椋熻捣灞呯収椤炬湇鍔°€佸仴搴锋姢鐞嗘湇鍔$瓑锛岃绀惧尯鑰佸勾浜轰粠涓彈鐩娿€傞拡瀵规椤规剰瑙侊紝鎴戝浗鍏昏€佹湇鍔′笓瀹跺鑰呬篃瀵瑰缓绔?ldquo;浜掕仈缃?”缁撳悎瀹為檯鍏昏€佹ā寮忚繘琛屼簡鐞嗚鐮旂┒涓庡疄璺垫€х殑鎺㈢储銆傚悓鏄ヨ姮銆佹豹杩炴澃[21]
銆€銆€
銆€銆€璁や负锛屾垜鍥借€佸勾浜哄彛灏辨€ュ墽澧炲姞鍙戝睍杞瀷鍏昏€佹湇鍔¤揩鍦ㄧ湁鐫紝瑕佸埄鐢ㄤ簰鑱旂綉寤鸿鑰佸勾浜烘湇鍔¢渶姹傜獥鍙o紝寰佹眰鎴栬惤瀹炵ぞ鍖鸿€佸勾浜虹殑闇€姹傦紝骞朵笉鏂殑寤鸿鍋ュ悍缁胯壊瀹夊叏鏀惧績鐨勫吇鑰佺幆澧冧笌鏈嶅姟鍔熻兘锛屽缓璁剧綉涓婂吇鑰佹湇鍔$兢鏂逛究鑰佷汉浠冻涓嶅嚭鎴峰氨鍙互鍦ㄧ綉涓婂姹傛湇鍔°€?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€
銆€銆€3 鍥藉唴澶栧绀惧尯灞呭鍏昏€佸仴搴锋湇鍔$殑鐮旂┒
銆€銆€3.1 鍥藉唴鐮旂┒鐜扮姸
銆€銆€3.2 鍥藉鐮旂┒鐜扮姸

銆€銆€4 灏忕粨
銆€銆€
銆€銆€璋冩煡鐮旂┒
銆€銆€
銆€銆€1 鐮旂┒瀵硅薄
銆€銆€1.1 鏍锋湰鏉ユ簮
銆€銆€1.2 绾冲叆鏍囧噯
銆€銆€1.3 鎺掗櫎鏍囧噯
銆€銆€1.4 鏍锋湰閲?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€2 鐮旂┒鏂?br /> 銆€銆€2.1 鏂囩尞鏌ラ槄娉?br /> 銆€銆€2.2 闂嵎璋冩煡娉?br /> 銆€銆€2.3 涓撳鍜ㄨ娉?br /> 銆€銆€2.4 缁熻鍒嗘瀽娉?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€3 鐮旂┒杩囩▼
銆€銆€3.1 鎴愮珛璇鹃灏忕粍
銆€銆€3.2 鍩硅璇鹃缁勬垚鍛?br /> 銆€銆€3.3 闂嵎鍙戞斁瑕佹眰
銆€銆€3.4 鍥炴敹鏁寸悊
銆€銆€
銆€銆€4 璐ㄩ噺鎺у埗
銆€銆€4.1 鍦ㄩ棶鍗疯璁℃柟闈㈡妸鍏宠川閲?br /> 銆€銆€4.2 鍦ㄩ棶鍗疯皟鏌ヨ繃绋嬩腑涓ユ牸鎺у埗璐ㄩ噺
銆€銆€4.3 瀵归棶鍗峰弽棣堣繘琛屼弗鏍肩瓫閫?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€鐮旂┒缁撴灉
銆€銆€
銆€銆€1 鐢熸椿鐜扮姸璋冩煡
銆€銆€1.1 涓€鑸祫鏂?br /> 銆€銆€1.2 缁忔祹鐘跺喌
銆€銆€1.3 灞呬綇涓庡搴収椤炬儏鍐?br /> 銆€銆€1.4 鍋ュ悍銆佸尰鐤楁儏鍐?br /> 銆€銆€1.5 鏃ュ父娲诲姩鑳藉姏
銆€銆€1.6 绀句細鏀寔鎯呭喌
銆€銆€1.7 鎶戦儊鐘舵€?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€2 鍏昏€佹剰鎰胯皟鏌?br /> 銆€銆€2.1 鑰佸勾浜哄吇鑰佹剰鎰跨幇鐘?br /> 銆€銆€2.2 鑰佸勾浜洪€夋嫨鍏昏€佹柟寮忕殑鍗曞洜绱犲垎鏋?br /> 銆€銆€2.2.1 涓€鑸儏鍐靛鑰佸勾浜哄吇鑰佹柟寮忛€夋嫨鐨勫奖鍝?br /> 銆€銆€2.2.2 缁忔祹鐘跺喌瀵硅€佸勾浜洪€夋嫨鍏昏€佹柟寮忕殑褰卞搷
銆€銆€2.2.3 灞呬綇鏂瑰紡鍙婂搴収椤炬儏鍐靛鑰佸勾浜洪€夋嫨鍏昏€佹柟寮忕殑褰卞搷
銆€銆€2.2.4 鍋ュ悍鍖荤枟鎯呭喌瀵硅€佸勾浜洪€夋嫨鍏昏€佹柟寮忕殑褰卞搷
銆€銆€2.2.5 鏃ュ父鐢熸椿娲诲姩鑳藉姏瀵硅€佸勾浜洪€夋嫨鍏昏€佹柟寮忕殑褰卞搷
銆€銆€2.2.6 绀句細鏀寔鎯呭喌瀵硅€佸勾浜洪€夋嫨鍏昏€佹柟寮忕殑褰卞搷
銆€銆€2.2.7 绮剧鐘舵€佸鑰佸勾浜洪€夋嫨鍏昏€佹柟寮忕殑褰卞搷
銆€銆€2.3 鑰佸勾浜洪€夋嫨鍏昏€佹柟寮忕殑澶氬洜绱犲垎鏋?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€3 鍏昏€佹湇鍔¢渶姹傝皟鏌?br /> 銆€銆€3.1 鑰佸勾浜哄灞呭鍏昏€佹湇鍔¢渶姹傛帓搴?br /> 銆€銆€3.2 鑰佸勾浜哄鏃ュ父鐢熸椿鐓ф枡鏈嶅姟鐨勯渶姹?br /> 銆€銆€3.3 鑰佸勾浜哄绮剧鎱拌棄鏈嶅姟鐨勯渶姹?br /> 銆€銆€3.4 鑰佸勾浜哄鍖荤枟淇濆仴鏈嶅姟鐨勯渶姹?br /> 銆€銆€
銆€銆€璁ㄨ
銆€銆€
銆€銆€1 绀惧尯鑰佸勾浜虹敓娲荤幇鐘?br /> 銆€銆€1.1 缁忔祹鎯呭喌瀵硅€佸勾浜洪€夋嫨鍏昏€侀」鐩湁褰卞搷
銆€銆€1.2 灞呬綇鏂瑰紡瀵硅€佸勾浜哄仴搴风敓娲绘柟寮忔湁褰卞搷
銆€銆€1.3 闅忕潃骞撮緞澧為暱鑰佸勾浜哄仴搴锋按骞冲憟鏄庢樉涓嬮檷瓒嬪娍
銆€銆€1.4 鍔犲己绀句細鏀寔鏈夊埄浜庢彁楂樿€佸勾浜烘垬鑳滅柧鐥呯殑淇″康
銆€銆€1.5 鑰佸勾浜虹簿绁炵姸鎬佺殑鎶ょ悊鏄竴涓笉瀹瑰拷瑙嗙殑闂
銆€銆€
銆€銆€2 鑰佸勾浜哄吇鑰佹剰鎰垮垎鏋?br /> 銆€銆€2.1 鑰佸勾浜哄吇鑰佹剰鎰跨幇鐘跺垎鏋?br /> 銆€銆€2.2 鑰佸勾浜哄吇鑰佹柟寮忕殑閫夋嫨褰卞搷鍥犵礌
銆€銆€
銆€銆€3 鑰佸勾浜哄眳瀹跺吇鑰佹湇鍔¢渶姹傚垎鏋?br /> 銆€銆€3.1 鑰佸勾浜哄鍏昏€佹湇鍔¢」鐩笉鍚屽眰娆¢渶姹?br /> 銆€銆€3.2 鑰佸勾浜哄鏃ュ父鐢熸椿鐓ф枡鏈嶅姟鐨勯渶姹?br /> 銆€銆€3.3 鑰佸勾浜哄绮剧鐓ф枡鏈嶅姟鐨勯渶姹?br /> 銆€銆€3.4 鑰佸勾浜哄鍖荤枟棰勯槻淇濆仴鏈嶅姟鐨勯渶姹?/span>

銆€銆€缁?璁?/span>

銆€銆€1.鐩墠绀惧尯鑰佸勾浜虹殑鍋ュ悍鐘跺喌涓嶇悊鎯筹紝鎱㈡€х梾鐨勬偅鐥呯巼寰堥珮銆?/span>

銆€銆€2.澶у鏁拌€佸勾浜烘効鎰忛€夋嫨灞呭鍏昏€併€?/span>

銆€銆€3.鑰佸勾浜哄濮荤姸鍐点€佹偅鎱㈡€х梾锛堣剳鍗掍腑銆侀珮琛€鑴傘€佹參鎬ц儍鐐庯級鏄奖鍝嶈€佸勾浜洪€夋嫨鍏昏€佹柟寮忕殑涓昏鍥犵礌锛涚ぞ鍖鸿€佸勾浜哄灞呭鍏昏€佹湇鍔$殑闇€姹傝緝楂橈紝鍏朵腑璇峰嚭鎴锋湇鍔°€佹枃鍖栨暀鑲叉湇鍔°€佹硶寰嬬淮鏉冩湇鍔$瓑鏄€佸勾浜烘渶杩垏鐨勯渶姹傘€?br />
銆€銆€鍙傝€冩枃鐚?/span>

纭曞崥璁烘枃缃?/a>鏄竴瀹朵笓涓氭彁渚涜鏂囧畾鍒朵慨鏀规湇鍔$殑缃戠珯锛屼笂10骞寸殑璁烘枃缁忛獙锛屾棤璁烘槸鏈璁烘枃銆佺澹鏂囪繕鏄湡鍒婅鏂囷紝鍗氬+璁烘枃锛屾垜浠兘鑳戒负鎮ㄦ彁渚涙柟渚裤€佸揩鎹枫€佸畨鍏ㄧ殑璁烘枃鏈嶅姟銆?/span>


 

纭曞崥鍘熷垱璁烘枃缃? /></td>
  </tr>
</table>
<table width=

纭曞崥鍘熷垱璁烘枃缃? 娆㈣繋鎮ㄧ殑鍜ㄨ锛佹垜浠皢涓烘偍鎻愪緵鏈€浼樿川銆侀珮鏁堢殑鏈嶅姟锛?br /> 涓撲笟鏈嶅姟锛屼紭璐ㄥ洟闃燂紝璇氫俊楂樻晥锛屽€煎緱淇¤禆锛?br /> 婀業CP澶?9012525鍙?/a>

杩斿洖椤堕儴